Week 1 and 2 – Personal Primary Research
Who am I? (Unit 12 2.1, 2.2)
Before starting on my Final Major Project I need to conduct a certain amount of introspection to gain a sense of what kind of project would be most appropriate for me. By examining these different aspects of myself I hope to find an area of interest which I can base a project on to expand my knowledge in that area. To start off I created a mind map titled “Who am I?”, the mind map was created to look at a few of the things that make me myself.
After considering what I have written in this mind map I have considered how a few aspects of myself tie together, for instance I became a gamer from a very young age because my older brother had a Playstation 1 and we would compete against each other regularly in our spare time.This interest stayed with me through my life as I would play online with friends, as some of them moved away through my life I would still be able to game with them online as this type of gaming has very few limits in terms of distance, whereas meeting up would take a larger amount of time, effort and preparation. To this day I still play games online with old friends who I have been apart from for years.
Another conclusion that I came to is that my interest in animation may be influenced by my interest in Psychology and animals. I have always loved animals and found it interesting to consider how they think and act. I also find some aspects of Psychology fascinating, such as some of the early experiments conducted like the Pavlov’s dogs experiments and the Milgram experiments. I feel that the connection between these two aspects, and the sense of ‘life’ that I feel animals emanate ties to how I enjoy creating animations which may emit a similar sense of ‘life’.
Overall I feel that this introspection has allowed me to make a few connections between different aspects of myself, leading on from this I will be able to develop projects which have a basis in who I am and what I am interested in.
McLeod, S. (2013) Pavlov’s Dogs. Available at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html (Accessed: 31/01/2017).
McLeod, S. (2007) The Milgram Experiment. Available at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/milgram.html (Accessed: 31/01/2017).
Interviews about interests and Final Major Project ideas (Unit 12 2.1, 2.2)
For this task we were introduced to various interviewing techniques so that we would be able to ask each other questions about our interests and any ideas we had for our Final Major Project. The aim of the task was to find out what aspects of our course we were most inclined to, what our interests were and how these could come together to form our Final Major Project.
To prepare to interview each other we first had to look into interviewing techniques and types of questions. One important aspect of interviewing is to use open questions rather than closed questions when possible. An open question is one that can be answered in a variety of ways, for instance “What’s your opinion on music?” is an open question, and “Do you like music?” would be a closed question as it pushes you towards answering “yes” or “no”. Open questions are important as they encourage the other person to answer in depth and in a more natural way, they are encouraged to speak as much as they like on the subject.
Although questions can be either open or closed we must also consider more specifically what the different types of questions are. One type of question is an introductory question, these are the questions which lead into a subject, for instance “Can you tell me about…?”, “What happened when…?” or “Do you remember a time when…?”. They are used to broach a new topic and usually lead to follow up questions. The type of question that might follow an introductory question would be a probing question, these are questions which ask for more detail about a particular topic, for instance “Could you say something more about that?”, “Do you have any other examples of this?” or “Could you describe that in more detail?”. Interpreting questions are those which are the interviewer seeking clarification and confirmation, for instance “Is it correct to say that you feel…?”, “Does this mean that…?” or “Does the event you described express your…?”. Direct questions are ones which are very straightforward, for instance “Have you ever…?” or “Do you like…?”. Finally, specifying questions are similar to probing questions, but they’re more focused on a particular aspect of the answer. Examples of specifying questions would be “How did you react to this happening?” or “What was your experience of…?”. By understanding all of these types of questions we were able to produce plans of questions to ask each other, the plans were a loose structure to go by as when interviewing someone you should ask probing questions based on what they said, not just based on what you had written in a plan.
The first interview was conducted by me, I interviewed a Digital Design student named Harry Warne and asked him about his interests, how these tie to his work and how they could be incorporated into his Final Major Project. I began by asking about what drew them to the course, initially they weren’t strongly interested in any particular aspect, however he became most interested in the 3D design and traditional art aspects of the course over time. I also inquired about what lead them down this path, he told me that is family generally leaned towards the sciences, however he had interests in a different area. He also told me that he had a prior interest working in 3D design, a skill which he strove to develop in his spare time as a hobby. He told me about how he used his 3D design skills in his first year FMP when he created an interior environment, he found the most rewarding part of the project to be near the end as he finalised and compiled the project. However he wasn’t quite as fond of the preparation and research aspect of the project. For the year 2 FMP he discussed a few ideas regarding an architectural design themed project, perhaps leaning towards blueprints or concept work. When I asked about skills he would like to work on he told me about the fact that Photoshop was integral to this type of work so he would need to practice with it to become more familiar with it for his future projects. To summarise he told me about how an existing interest in 3D design lead him to this course, where he enjoyed the 3D design and traditional art aspects. He used these skills in his first year FMP when he created an interior environment. He would like to create something pertaining more to architectural design for the second year FMP which would require him to become more familiar with programs such as Photoshop.
The second interview was conducted by Harry, this time he interviewed me about my interests and what I might like to create for my year 2 FMP. I told him about my pre-existing interest in 3D modelling which lead me to this course, I discussed the fact that I found it fun to sink time into 3D modelling and that I was lead to this by my interest in games. When he asked about the type of games I liked I told him about my interest in the social side of gaming, competitive and cooperative games which could be enjoyed with friends. We discussed the possibility of me working on a project with these features, but I considered a multiplayer project to be quite advanced for my skill level, I spoke about the fact I had considered creating a first person interactive environment which could be explored by a player. To summarise, I told him about my pre-existing interest in 3D modelling and how this stemmed from my love of games. We discussed my interest in cooperative and competitive games and I considered if I could apply this to my Final Major Project. My existing ideas for my Final Major Project were mostly about creating an interactive 3D environment of some kind.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test (Unit 12 2.1, 2.2)
Today I conducted the Myers-Briggs Test and received my results, the test asks a series of questions to which I answered on a scale from “Strongly agree” through to “Strongly disagree”. The test results are a set of four letters which connect to one of fourteen personality types. My result was the personality type INFJ, I have done the test in the past about 6 years prior to this attempt and gained the same result. I would agree with the result as I answered sincerely and I believe that a lot of the descriptions are fitting to my personality.
Each letter in INFJ stands for a descriptor, and each has a descriptor on the opposite end of the spectrum. My combination stands for Introvert, Intuitive, Feeling and Judging. The opposite traits are Extravert, Sensing, Thinking and Prospecting respectively. According to the site I used my personality type is called an Advocator, the notable features of this type are morality and idealism. They are said to be soft-spoken yet have strong opinions, they are decisive and strong-willed. I would say that these traits are accurate, I can see how they relate to myself and I don’t feel that any of the personality traits attached to this are inaccurate. Some strengths of this personality type are; insightful, inspiring, decisive, altruistic and determined. I feel that these traits align with my own and I would say that my result is accurate. The weaknesses seem to be very accurate; being sensitive, extremely private, perfectionistic, needing a cause and burning out easily. When I work I work very hard and try to ensure my work is as good as possible when moving on, if I can see how my work will lead to an end goal I can be motivated to work very hard, but at the same time if I don’t understand why I’m completing something I can lose motivation and passion for it.
After completing my own test I took the test for a friend and they took the test for me. We did this to see how we perceived each other, as this relates to how we tend to present ourselves. The result they got for me was ISFJ, this stands for Introvert, Sensing, Feeling and Judging. The title attached to this combination is Defender, it is all about empathy and helping others. This result was only one letter different from my previous result of INFJ, so I think that the result is still very applicable to myself. Some examples of strengths for this personality type are supportive, reliable, loyal and hard-working. Similarly to before I feel that these can be applied to myself.
By using a variety of primary research techniques I have expanded my ability to collect information about a topic. This is shown by my use of techniques such mind mapping to explore my existing knowledge, my use of interviews to inquire about specific subjects and my use of a personality website as a form of introspection and reflection. By creating a mind map I was able to lay out my existing knowledge in an easily understood way which I could refer back to in the future. This also helped me consider areas where I was unsure, for a research task this would allow me to note that as a point of interest which I could look into in the future. By interviewing and being interviewed I have learned more about methods of inquiry which can help me learn about specific topics from an individual. The introspection task allowed me to analyse, interpret and discuss differing results. By undertaking these methods I have opened myself up to different ways of approaching topics, gathering information and analysing the results. As these methods of of primary research are qualitative work it can be difficult to gain conclusive results, I found the mind map and interview to give me a solid basis to work from in spite of this factor. The introspection task was difficult to gain a definitive conclusion from due to the nature of the research. In the future I would probably prefer to use mind maps as a way of exploring my existing knowledge and interviews as a way of collecting qualitative data about a subject.
Week 3 How to Research
How to Research – Skateboards (Unit 12 2.1, 2.2)
To refamiliarise myself with how to properly conduct research I watched a documentary about the origins of skateboarding. This topic was chosen because it was quite a neutral subject that I would have no real prior knowledge of, as opposed to something related to games, this meant that I could better learn how to apply research fundamentals to any subject. Below is a mind map of everything that two of my classmates and I knew about skateboards prior to watching the documentary.
Whilst watching the documentary I took several pages of notes on the key pieces of information conveyed throughout the documentary, I focused on names, dates and places. Based on this information we created another mind map based on new information which we learned from the documentary.
This second mind map is far more in-depth and generally focuses on key, important facts about skateboards and their history, rather than general information about the boards. To expand on this knowledge we also researched points which we considered interesting, but which the documentary didn’t cover in-depth, such as what the Bones Brigade was and how the materials used for skateboards changed over time. To research this we used various techniques such as Boolean operators, truncation symbols and wildcards, you can see examples of these below.
This image shows a search using a Truncation operator, this modifies the search so that the information returned to me is tailored to my needs, the asterisk, when added to the end of a set of characters, has the effect of searching for the initial word and any word that begins that way. In my example that would include words such as “skateboarder” or “skateboarding”.
If for some reason I wanted to find specifically the words “skateboard” or “skateboarder”, but not “skateboarding” I could use Wildcard Characters. An example of this can be seen above. This technique searches for the written word, and those with added characters on the end up to the number of + symbols. It also excludes anything in excess of this number. What this means is I can search for the word “skateboard” and any word which has up to two characters following that word, but not any words with three or more added characters. This is valuable as it can allow me to be very specific with my searches.
Overall, by practicing these new research techniques and search engine operators I have enhanced by ability to conduct research. This is important and relevant as my Final Major Project will be built on extensive research, so knowing these techniques will allow me to be more particular when searching for information.
How to Research – Unreal Engine (Unit 12 2.1, 2.2)
I am going to conduct research into the Unreal Engine, to do this I will research information about various aspects of the engine. By researching this topic I hope to improve my researching skills and deepen my knowledge of Unreal Engine as it will likely be very important to my Final Major Project.
Unreal Engine is a game engine, a game engine is a tool used by developers to create games. This tool allows developers to import various assets such as 3D models, textures and audio. With these assets the developers can use the engine to create interactive worlds for players to experience. The main benefit of a game engine such as Unreal Engine is that the developers don’t need to create a game engine from scratch, by being able to use a pre-existing game engine developers are able to commit more of their time to asset creation and in-engine work. One of the drawbacks of an engine such as the Unreal Engine is that it may not be tailored to a developer’s specific needs, for this reason some larger developers opt to create their own, personalised game engines which fit their needs. Another example of a popular, public game engine is Unity, it is similar to Unreal Engine in many ways, but each has their own benefits when compared to the other.
Unreal Engine has a history which spans several decades, the most recent iteration of the engine at the time of writing is version 4.14, released on November 15 2016. Unreal Engine is a hugely popular game engine which has been used for countless game series, such as Gears of War, Bioshock and Paragon, but like everything else this had to start somewhere. In the Summer of 1998 Unreal was released by a company called Epic Games. The game featured high-quality 3D graphics and bot opponents with artificial intelligence, but most importantly it contained a set of modular tools for building and customising games. Unreal drastically improved the speed at which developers could create games and also helped mod makers with it’s UnrealScript. Shortly afterwards in November 1999 Unreal Tournament was released, which featured incredible online play and advanced AI. In July 2001 the Unreal Developer Network was released as a reaction to the engine’s surging popularity, the UDN was designed as a was for developers and modders to have access to up-to-date information and tutorials, the network still finds use to this day.
To conclude, Epic Games and their series of Unreal titles were highly influential in the games industry as they simultaneously pushed the boundaries of technology in gaming and also made the tools they used available to others which allowed people to develop their own mods and games much more easily. Due to the consistent updates and new versions of the Unreal Engine it has remained a staple of the games industry for decades, being used to develop an enormous amount of video games.
Epic Games (2016) Unreal Editor. Available at: https://www.unrealengine.com/ (Accessed: 31/01/2017)
Epic Games (2014) Unreal Tournament 3. Available at: http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/8/5695780/the-next-unreal-tournament-will-be-completely-free-and-developed-by (Accessed: 31/01/2017)
Bleszinski, C. (2010) History of the Unreal Engine. Available at: http://uk.ign.com/articles/2010/02/23/history-of-the-unreal-engine (Accessed: 21/01/2017).
Busby, J. Parrish, Z. Wilson, J. (2009) Introduction to Unreal Technology. Available at: http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1377834 (Accessed: 21/01/2017).
Epic Games (November 15 2016) Unreal Engine Technology | Home. Available at: https://www.unrealengine.com/blog?category=&offset=0&max=10 (Accessed: 21/01/2017).
Feedback and Reflection
These recent tasks have allowed me to apply and expand upon my existing research skills. I created a mind map about my knowledge about skateboards as part of a group before watching a documentary on the topic, during the video I took notes about the origins of skateboarding and the people who influenced it’s development as a sport. After the documentary I created a new mind map with my group which contained the new knowledge, by doing this I summarised what I knew before the documentary and what was new knowledge, both of these combined allowed me to consider other areas I could research about skateboards. To follow this task I researched topics of interest online using search engine techniques which would allow me to research in a more particular way, these were called Truncation operators and wildcard characters. This was valuable to me as the internet is a vast pool of knowledge, and being able to search very specific topics and phrases is important to working efficiently. Finally I researched a topic of my choice, I chose to research the origins of the Unreal Engine and how it influenced game development, by doing this I hoped to expand my knowledge on a topic which could be important to my Final Major Project. I found the task valuable as a way of using the processes I had been practicing.
Week 4 – Experimentation
Exploring the theme of fear
To improve my skill set it is important for me to experiment and explore a variety of topics and techniques. To properly conduct an experiment relevant to my specialisation I must first consider the core aspects of an experiment and how they pertain to what I will be doing. The first step of an experiment is to create a hypothesis or question which the experiment will be based about. This is something which I am trying to test so that I can learn based on the outcome, regardless of the outcome of an experiment the information gained is valuable. The next two steps are tied closely together, they are the plan and the method, the plan is my idea for how I will test my hypothesis and it will dictate what my method is. After conducting my experiment I will be presented with results, I need to analyse the outcome of my experiment so that I may learn the most I possibly can from it. It is important to consider how his knowledge can be applied and how it is useful.
The question I will base my experiment around is: “How do the visual aspects of a character elicit fear?”. To research into this subject I will look at aspects of character design such as shape, colour and scale. I will be focusing on the designs of characters and creatures in games as this is the most relevant to my area of specialisation. An example of a creature with a design meant to evoke fear is the Chyrissalid from XCOM 2 (Firaxis Games, 2016). The overall design is reminiscant of a human’s with the two eyes, two humanoid arms and the torso, but it diverges in many significant ways. First of all it evokes imagery of insects, the body is covered in an exoskeleton and the limbs are barbed and pointed. This ties to fear as phobias such as arachnophobia are strongly connected to this style of appearance. The dark colours have negative connotations and the red is reminiscent of blood. Most of the areas of the body are dark, and to contrast this some areas are highlighted red to draw the viewer’s attention. The main areas that do this are the eyes, the mandible, the spines and the claws, as these are parts of the character which help convey threat.
Another example of an unnerving design is the Sewer Centipede from Dark Souls 3 (FromSoftware, 2016). This design is reminiscent of a human with long hair when first seen, but when it attacks it splays out it’s many limbs and crawls about, it attacks with rib-like claws on the underside of it’s torso. The design of this creature is striking because it is deceptively humanoid, it could easily be mistaken for a drowned corpse when undisturbed, but when moving it is more similar to a type of insect like a centipede. The sheer number of long, thin limbs evoke even more imagery of insects and serve to unsettle the viewer when combined with the unmistakably human features of the creature.
As a way of experimenting with what I’ve researched here I will be using 3DS Max to create a creature which has some of the traits described above, my intent is to see how these aspects come together to convey a certain theme in design. The model I create will use features from various different creatures to create a unique final design.
Here is the final model, for the model I focused on shape, scale and imagery of other creatures. For example, the claws at the front are reminiscent of those of a Praying Mantis, they are oversized to draw the viewer’s attention to them. The feet of the creature are similar to talons, to convey a sense of threat, similarly to before they are large to bring attention to them.The head uses triangular shapes to convey danger, the face design is similar to a large beak, or a proboscis of an insect. The overall shape of the body, as well as the number of limbs is designed to be reminiscant of a human, as this is a way of making a design more unsettling. I did the best I could to make the torso look like that of a slightly emaciated human.
Overall I am pleased with the end result of my work, I feel that I have expanded both on my skills and my knowledge. I am happy with how the model itself turned out, it’s shape is interesting and I enjoyed practicing new techniques to develop it. I feel that the model itself isn’t too fear evoking as it lacks any kind of colour or textures which would help cement it’s theme. In the future if I create a similar creature I will consider how textures can help to further exemplify a specific theme.
Firaxis Games (2016) XCOM 2 [Video game]. 2K Games.
XCOM 2 (2016) Chryssalid. Available at: http://xcom.wikia.com/wiki/Chryssalid_(XCOM_2) (Accessed: 23/01/2017).
FromSoftware (2016) Dark Souls 3 [Video game]. Bandai Namco.
Dark Souls 3 (2016) Sewer Centipede. Available at: http://darksouls3.wiki.fextralife.com/Sewer+Centipede (Accessed: 23/01/2017)
Exploring the themes of animals
Continuing on from my previous experimentation around the subject of fear I am going to research into animals and how they are portrayed in games.The question I will be looking to answer is “What design techniques are used to portray animals in games?”. To answer this I will look at their designs as well as the techniques used to display them in games. Following on from this I will be looking at organic modeling and techniques that I could utilise for my own projects.
An example of an animal which is a character central to a game would be Amaterasu, from the game Okami (Clover Studio, 2006). Amaterasu is a mythical wolf based on Japanese folklore, the game has a very heavy emphasis on Japanese history and mythology. Amaterasu is the protagonist and the character that the player controls. Their appearance is that of a white wolf with crimson red markings and their tail resembles a calligraphy brush. The white colours have themes of purity and innocence, the reds have connotations of courage and willpower.
Another animal character I have chosen to examine is Trico from The Last Guardian (Sony Interactive Entertainment, 2016), this character is a chimera of sorts, combining features of birds, cats and dogs. Colour is used in a subtle, yet strong way for this design, most of the colours are variants of grey, black or a faint pink, except the bright protrusions atop it’s head which are designed to draw the viewer’s attention. The design also uses the contrast of light and dark shades of the same grey to highlight important areas, such as the eyes and the wings, this is done because those aspects are core to Trico’s unique design. A lot of Trico’s character is conveyed through movement and pose, these tend to be non-threatening when around the boy. I could incorporate this into my Final Major Project by further studying movements and poses of animals in the future.
This time I have chosen to once again create a model in 3DS Max, but instead of creating a model from my mind based on my knowledge of character design I will base it off of a real creature. I have chosen to create a simple fox model using many reference images as a way of practicing organic modelling, I will also look at how smoothing affects the overall appearance of the model.
Overall I am very pleased with the end result of my work, the model strongly resembles a fox and I feel that my attention to detail made the overall design more appealing. This was an important experiment for me as it allowed me to practice organic modelling, whereas I have been doing a lot of hard-surface modelling recently which requires a slightly different set of skills. If I were to improve on this in the future I could add textures and maybe try experimenting with adding fur to the model.
To conclude I found this experiment very useful as it allowed me to practice organic modelling and modelling from reference images. I also took a closer look at the defining features of animal characters in games. This was a valuable experiment as I will likely apply this knowledge and the skills practiced here in my Final Major Project, currently I am considering modelling and animal of some kind, I am also considering if I will use tangential techniques such as texturing, adding fur and animating.
Clover Studio (2006) Okami [Video game]. Capcom.
Okami (2016) Amaterasu. Available at: http://okami.wikia.com/wiki/Amaterasu?file=Amaterasu.jpg (Accessed: 24/01/2017)
Sony Interactive Entertainment (2016) The Last Guardian [Video Game]. Sony Interactive Entertainment.
The Last Guardian (2016) Trico Available at: http://teamico.wikia.com/wiki/Trico (Accessed: 29/01/2017)
Week 5 – Experimentation Continuation
Exploring the theme of endearing designs
The area I will be researching and experimenting this time revolves around which aspects of a character design make them cuter, and by extension more appropriate and appealing to younger audiences. The question I will be seeking to answer is “What makes a character design endearing?”. To answer this I will be looking at designs which have been altered to become cuter and I will look at which aspects in particular were changed to achieve this effect.
The transformation of Robin’s design between Teen Titans (2003) and Teen Titans Go (2013) shows a good example of which aspects of a character design can be altered to achieve a certain effect. The design of the fist Robin was more detailed, with darker colours and a different body shape. To change Robin’s character design to become more appealing to children they simplified his design and made all of the colours far more saturated. One of the most noticeable changes is to the size of his head and eyes compared to the rest of his body, this is important as it evokes imagery of a non-threatening, juvenile character.
Expanding on the previous point about the size of the newer Robin’s head and eyes compared to the rest of his body I researched into how people react when seeing this type of appearance. According to W.Koops anatomical proportions can trigger feelings of affection and nurturing from humans, as seen in the image below this doesn’t simply apply to how humans perceive their own young, but also how they perceive anything which has certain visual characteristics. As shown in the image below a succinct description of these visual characteristics would be “juvenile characteristics: large eyes, bulging craniums, retreating chins”. This can be applied to my observation of character designs as it is obvious Robin’s newer design as shown above incorporates these features, I will also look at another character designed to be cute and then attempt a rough sketch of what the form of a character who meets these specifications would look like.
This warrior class from Fat Princess (2009) is a prime example of my previous research, their torso is approximately the same size as their head, their eyes are large and bright and they are relatively low-set on their head, from what can be seen. The character has a very juvenile appearance, and is certainly designed this way to appear cute and evoke affection from the viewer.
To expand on my previous research I will attempt a rough sketch of what the form of a character who meets the specifications I researched above would look like. I will focus on the scale of aspects of their body and then analyse what I did right and wrong and consider how my design could be expanded upon.
Overall I am happy with the outcome of this experiment. I feel that I could have pushed the design even more to the extreme by making the torso and limbs even smaller in comparison to the head. To expand on this design I would give the character large eyes and make their overall design very simple and brightly coloured, similar to the designs I looked at above.
In summary; to create an endearing character design creators often incorporate juvenile features to elicit affection from the viewer. Examples of these features would be large eyes, bulging craniums and retreating chins. You can see aspects of these features in the characters I looked at above. By learning more about how to evoke certain feelings from a viewer through character design I am improving my ability to create and understand designs of my own in the future, this will aid me greatly in the future when developing projects of my own.
Teen Titans Go (2013) Cartoon Network.
Teen Titans Go (2013) Robin. Available at: http://hero.wikia.com/wiki/Robin_(Teen_Titans_Go!) (Accessed: 01/02/2017)
Teen Titans (2003) Cartoon Network.
Teen Titans (2003) Robin. Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475903885606594177/ (Accessed: 01/02/2017)
Fat Princess (2009) Sony Interactive Entertainment.
Fat Princess (2003) Warrior. Available at: http://playstationallstars.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Alexray35/More_Minions (Accessed: 01/02/2017)
W.Koops (1996) Historical Developmental Psychology: The Sample Case of Paintings. International Journal of Behavioral Development Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254110729_Historical_Developmental_Psychology_The_Sample_Case_of_Paintings (Accessed: 03/02/2017).
Reflection of Experimentation Tasks
I found these recent experimentation tasks to be a very valuable way of trying out new techniques based on existing products. The fear task was a very interesting look at the aspects of character design which evoke particular emotions, I enjoyed trying to convert some of these character design aspects into a simplistic 3D model of a strange creature. When doing this task I was considering pose, proportions and the features of the model. The animal task was my favourite of the three, in this task I tried to create a model of a fox, working from images of real foxes. I thought that my attention to detail and careful consideration lead to a model which is immediately recognisable as a fox. I enjoyed the striking style of the low-poly model, though I found the smoothed model to be an interesting contrast. The final task I did was looking at 2D character proportions, based on my research I tried to draw the type of body proportions which would result in an endearing design. I was happy with the end result, it applied what I found out in my research well and looked accurate to what I was going for.